Before the discovery of Pluto in the 20th century, it had been theorized that a ninth planet, Planet X, existed beyond Neptune due to the gravitational clustering that could only be caused by a massive object. It was then believed that this planet was found in Pluto, but that never fully quantified the gravitational distortion until scientists at the California Institute of Technology presented evidence that a ninth planet truly does exist with an orbital period of 15,000 years.
The astronomers who published their discovery have calculated that there is “only a 0.007 percent chance, or about one in 15,000, that the clustering could be a coincidence.” Presently, Planet Nine remains hypothetical, but astronomers have calculated its orbit to be quite massive. If it does exist, the planet would likely be approximately 2–15 times the mass of Earth and orbit between 200 and 1,600 Astronomical Units (AU) from the Sun. An AU is 150,000,000 kilometers, which means that the planet could orbit as far from the Sun as 240,000,000,000 kilometers.
The good news is that you can be immortal. The bad news is that you have to become a floating blob of jelly to do so. Scientists have discovered a jellyfish which can live forever.
Turritopsis dohrnii is now officially known as the only immortal creature. The secret to eternal life, as it turns out, is not just living a really, really long time. It’s all about maturity, or rather, the lack of it. The immortal jellyfish (as it is better known popularly) propagate and then, faced with the normal career path of dying, they opt instead to revert to a sexually immature stage.
It turns out that once the adult form of the 4.5 mm-wide species Turritopsis dohrnii have reproduced, they don’t die but transform themselves back into their juvenile polyp state. Their tentacles retract, their bodies shrink, and they sink to the ocean floor and start the cycle all over again. Among laboratory samples, all the adult Turritopsis observed regularly undergo this change. And not just once: they can do it over and over again.
Thus, the only known way they can die is if they get consumed by another fish or if a disease strikes the jelly. However, there are still many mysteries surrounding the turritopsis dohrnii. While the process of reverting from its adult-phase to a polyp was observed several times, it hasn’t been observed yet in nature, only in laboratory environments.
Spinach one the best source of vitamines, minerals, protiens, not only spinach but there are hundred of plant which are beneficial to human from our food to the cosmetics we use in our daily life, but think if plants can used for organ trnsplantation it will be a new revolution in our medical history. Doctors have been reasearching for several years to use spinach leaves for heart transplantation.
It is been a failure to produce artificial heart for organ transplantation because we’re not that good at growing blood vessels, and tissues need blood vessels to, well, stay alive. The blood vessels in our own body range from the aorta’s whopping 3 centimeter diameter to capillaries as thin as 5 microns—15 times thinner than a human hair. Our current techniques aren’t refined enough to create fluid channels that tiny, so bioengineers are hard at work finding other ways to make it happen. So if a person having non fuction heart muscels its very difficult to replace the heart with artificial heart.
One thing we can do is start with an actual organ, like a heart, and stripping it of its existing cells so that all you have left is its underlying structure. It already has blood vessels, after all. From there, the hope is that you could use stem cells to create human heart tissue that matches that of a transplant recipient. There’s just one problem: you need a heart first. It would be great if you could do the same thing with something easier to come by—spinach leaves, for example. “I had done decellularization work on human hearts before,” the study’s lead author Joshua Gershlak said in a press release, “and when I looked at the spinach leaf its stem reminded me of an aorta.” said by Joshua Gershlak.
He figured out a way to remove the plant cells by sending a detergent solution straight through the spinach leaf’s stem into its veins. After that, he had a framework made of harmless cellulose. The team bathed that framework in live human cells, these live human cells soon began growing inside of the tiny veins and beating on the surface of the now-skeletonized leaf. Once it was colonized by human heart cells, the researchers sent fluids and blood-cell-sized microbeads through the veins, demonstrating that blood could flow through the system.
Even though their beating spinach leaf looks like a miniature heart, the researchers don’t plan on replacing entire human hearts with stuff from the salad bar. Instead, they hope to use the technique to grow layers of human heart muscle, which could replace the portions damaged by heart attacks. The technique doesn’t just work with spinach—in fact, this very study also tried it with parsley, Artemesia annua (sweet wormwood), and peanut hairy roots. Different plants could be handy for different purposes. The spinach leaf might be better suited for a highly vascularized tissue, like cardiac tissue, whereas the cylindrical hollow structure of the stem of Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) might better suit an arterial graft. Conversely, the vascular columns of wood might be useful in bone engineering due to their relative strength and geometries. We all knew greens were good for us, but we didn’t realize they were this good.
Mimic Octopus-The name for the Mimic Octopus comes from the fact that they often copy the behaviors of other types of animals in the water. They do this in order to trick predators into leaving them alone. they even copy the shape and colour of other animal. they change there colour according to the surroundings. The Mimic Octopus is found in the area of South East Asia.
They are extremely intelligent and researchers believe they choose an animal to mimic based upon the types of predators that are in the area. They have a great memory so they already have seen what is consuming what in their environment. By selecting an animal to mimic that predators around won’t bother the ensure their own survival.
They are one of the few species of Octopus that make tunnels and burrows under the sand at the bottom of the water. They are able to move along this way protected from various predators. At the same time they are able to sneak up on their own prey and take them down without a battle.
Concrete is the most common building material in the whole world, and indeed a long-lasting one. But it’s not indestructible, and when it cracks under pressure from, for instance, change in temperature, air or moisture, it’s both dangerous as well as expensive to fix. Cracks developed in concrete allow penetration of salt and water through it that can corrode the steel reinforcements inside it. No one wants a bridge, skyscraper or a dam to suddenly break apart. So, a technique was needed to be developed to cease the cracking and the job was done by two of the researchers at TU Delft, which is a renowned college in Netherlands. They invented a special type of concrete which can heal itself by the use of bacteria which is termed as Bio Concrete. It is also known as self healing concrete or bacterial concrete.
As the pH value of concrete is very high, only the so-called alkaliphilic bacteria are able to survive in this condition. Moreover, the bacteria have to be able to survive the concrete mixer and then they have to wait for years before being able to carry out their restoration work. Bacteria of the bacillus species are perfect for the job. They can survive for decades in a kind of sleep mode, without food or oxygen. In concrete, they will only come to life if water and oxygen are added to it. In other words, if a crack appears in the concrete, they will be able to multiply and produce limestone, thereby closing the cracks. Once the crack is closed up completely, moisture can no longer get into the concrete, so it will not weaken. This type of technique can be used in hydraulic structures like dam.
Blood Falls is a waterfall bursting from the Taylor Glacier in McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, which was spotted in 1911 by Australian geologist Griffith Taylor.
Scientists initially believed it got its blood red hue from algae living in the water.It wasn’t until 2003 when researchers concluded that the liquid was full of iron oxide, and was likely the remains of a 5 million-year-old ancient lake.
But now a study shows that the red water is continually flowing thanks to a rare hydraulic system which may have been been flowing for one million years.
Water releases heat energy as it freezes, and this is enough to melt surrounding cold ice enough to turn it to liquid. This process allows the water to flow from Blood Falls.
This discovery confirms that the glacier has its own water system.
when ever some one drink a shot of hard liquor feels the burning sensation on the way down to the throat. Its not due to the liquor but the ethanol present in it. Ethanol in the liquid makes your throat’s VR1 heat receptors more sensitive, prompting them to perceive your own body temperature as hot. Of course, this doesn’t mean you should do shot after shot without fear of consequences. VR1 receptors activate at about 107°F, but ethanol lowers that to just 93 degrees. Body temperature is normally around 98.6°F, so when you feel that burning sensation, it’s because your body itself is now beyond the threshold for those heat receptors.
“The next time you take a shot and your eyes start watering, just remember it’s not the booze that’s hot, it’s you”
Reason behind the colour of these lakes
The salt content of these lakes is so high, it’s comparable to the Dead Sea. The color is the due to the combination of a high salinity, the algae species Dunaliella salina and pink bacteria called halobacteria. The algae and bacteria seem to thrive in waters with such high salt content, causing the whole lake to become the vibrant, unexpected hue.
Different places having pink lake
Lake Retba, Senegal
Salt ponds, San Francisco Bay
Lake Hillier, Western Australia
Lake Eyre South, South Australia
Laguna Colorada, Bolivia
Hutt Pink Lagoon, Western Australia
Pink Lake, Meningie – Australia
Le Salin de Gruissan, France
Lake Tuz Gola, Turkey
Recent studies and experiments found that Potatoes can be grown even in the extreme environment of Mars, according to a new study that has implications for future manned missions to the red planet as well as helping people survive in harsh climates on Earth.
The International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru launched a series of experiments to discover if potatoes can grow under Mars atmospheric conditions and thereby prove they are also able to grow in extreme climates on Earth.
The Phase Two effort of CIP’s proof of concept experiment to grow potatoes in simulated Martian conditions began in February last year when a tuber was planted in a specially constructed CubeSat by researchers from University of Engineering and Technology (UTEC) in Peru.The CubeSat houses a container holding soil and the tuber. Inside this hermetically sealed environment the CubeSat delivers nutrient rich water, controls the temperature for Mars day and night conditions and mimics Mars air pressure, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
“It was a pleasant surprise to see that potatoes we’ve bred to tolerate abiotic stress were able to produce tubers in this soil,” said CIP potato breeder Walter Amoros. The experiments have already provided good news about potato’s potential for helping people survive in extreme environments on Earth, he said.
A light pillar is an atmospheric optical phenomenon in the form of a vertical band of light which appears to extend above and/or below a light source. The effect is created by the reflection of light from numerous tiny ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere or clouds. The light can come from the Sun (usually when it is near or even below the horizon) in which case the phenomenon is called a sun pillar or solar pillar. It can also come from the Moon or from terrestrial sources such as streetlights.
Since they are caused by the interaction of light with ice crystals, the crystals responsible for light pillars usually consist of flat, hexagonal plates, which tend to orient themselves more or less horizontally as they fall through the air.
A dirty thunderstorm (also volcanic lightning, thunder volcano) is a weather phenomenon that is related to the production of lightning in a volcanic plume.
A study indicated that electrical charges are generated when rock fragments, ash, and ice particles in a volcanic plume collide and produce static charges, just as ice particles collide in regular thunderstorms.
Volcanic eruptions are sometimes accompanied by flashes of lightning. However, this lightning doesn’t descend from storm clouds in the sky. It is generated within the ash cloud spewing from the volcano, in a process called charge separation.
As the plume started going downwind, it seemed to have a life of its own and produced some 300 more or less normal [lightning bolts]. The implication is that it has produced more charge than it started with. Otherwise [the plume] couldn’t continue to make lightning.
During the summer, if you’re very lucky, you may notice a cloud in the sky that looks just like a rainbow. These so-called “fire rainbows” are actually known as circumhorizontal arcs and can occur when the sun has risen higher than 58° in the sky. For those living at mid-latitudes, the best chance to see this phenomenon is in the middle of summer. The rarity of the event is highly dependent upon latitude and weather conditions. The potential for these arcs to form in Los Angeles is 5-10 times higher than in London.
Aside from the position of the sun, the other ingredient to forming circumhorizontal arcs is cirrus clouds. Cirrus clouds are the thin, wispy clouds that occur at higher altitudes. Because the temperature is so low where these clouds exist, they are made of ice crystals. After the sun is higher than 58°, the light refracts through the plate-like crystals, which act like prisms and create the rainbow.
Circumhorizontal arcs aren’t the only optical illusion created by the sun and cirrus clouds; iridescent clouds, infra-lateral arcs, and circumzenithal arcs are just a few other ways the sun can create beautiful rainbow-colored clouds.
One of the most spectacular sights on a night dive in the ocean is to witness the blue waves in a dark night, it seems to be tiny blue stars illuminating in the sea shores. These tiny star like structures are bio-luminescent phytoplankton. This bio-luminescent effect produce by these plankton is due to certain chemical reaction. When certain types of chemicals mixed together produce energy which ‘excites’ other particles on vibration and generate light which causes the glow. The group of chemicals involved to make plankton glow are broadly termed luciferins and the light is produced by a series of oxidation reactions set off by a catalyst called luciferase. This bio-luminescent effect is a defense mechanism for these dinoflagellates (phytoplankton) to cautioned there predators.
Well when we are in REM (rapid eye movement) stage in our sleeping time we tend to have more dreams. To avoid the movement of body as like in the dreams, our body release some hormones which make our body paralyzed to avoid body movements. we feel these paralyzed situation if we woke up before REM stage. some time during sleep paralysis we tend to have ghostly hallucination and even feel pain or something heavy object kept in our chest….. from the myths and even physiologist comment it as some demonic spirit…..some how its not true its just because we cant move when we try to move we felt pain and heaviness .
- Ninety minutes of sweating can temporarily shrink the brain as much as one year of aging.
- More than 100,000 chemicals reactions take place in your brain every second.
- Brain cells cannibalize themselves as a last ditch source of energy to ward off starvation. So in very real ways dieting can force your brain to eat itself.
- Prescription sleeping pills don’t put you to sleep. They put your brain into a state similar to being in a coma, essentially bypassing any restorative value of sleep.
- Although pain is processed in your brain, your brain has no pain receptors and feels no pain. This explains how brain surgery can be performed while the patient is awake with no pain or discomfort.
- Everyone dreams, even blind people, for at least 1-2 hours and on an average 4-7 dreams each night. Brain waves are more active while you are dreaming than when you are awake.
- Your brain does creative work better when you’re tired. Let’s get creative…..
A printable organ is an artificially constructed device designed for organ replacement, produced using 3D printing techniques. The primary purpose of printable organs is in transplantation. Research is currently being conducted on artificial heart, kidney, and liver structures, as well as other major organs. For more complicated organs, such as the heart, smaller constructs such as heart valves have also been the subject of research. Some printed organs have already reached clinical implementation, and primarily include hollow structures such as the bladder, as well as vascular structures such as urine tubes. Modified inkjet printers have been used to produce three-dimensional biological tissue. Printer cartridges are filled with a suspension of living cells and a smart gel, the latter used for providing structure. Alternating patterns of the smart gel and living cells are printed using a standard print nozzle, with cells eventually fusing together to form tissue. When completed, the gel is cooled and washed away, leaving behind only live cells.
Geologists claim to have discovered a new continent to the east of Australia: Zealandia. At 4.9 million square kilometers of land mass, 94 per cent of which is under water, Zealandia would be the world’s smallest continent. According to their study, the land mass comprises all the four attributes needed to be considered a continent, including the presence of different rock types and crucially “the high elevation relative to regions floored by oceanic crust.”
- Coffee is most effective if consumed between 9:30 am and 11:30 am.
- Drinking a cup of caffeinated coffee significantly improves blood flow.
- There’s a Coffee Shop in France where not saying “hello” and “please” makes your coffee more expensive. Whattt!!!!
- If you yelled for 8 years, 7 months and 6 days, you would have produced enough energy to heat one cup of coffee.
- The name “Cappuccino” comes from the resemblance of the drink to the clothing of the Capuchin monks. wow….
- Contrary to popular belief, Coffee does not dehydrate you,studies have found. lets go for a coffee
- Two cups of coffee a day were found to reduce the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis by 43%.
- Men who drink 6 or more cups of coffee daily decrease their risk of developing prostate cancer by 20%, a study found.
In the ancient Arab culture there was only one way a woman could legally divorce: If her husband didn’t provide enough coffee.
There is a spa in Japan that lets you bathe in coffee, tea, or wine. I wouldn’t drink it though…
NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed the first known system of seven Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these planets are firmly located in the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water.
During a recent deep-sea dive in the Hawaiian Archipelago, a remotely operated vehicle came across an unknown creature. Unlike most cephalopods, the little octopus found by the NOAA Deep Discoverer lacks pigment, making it ghost like and mysterious, and every bit adorable.The researchers say the newly discovered octopus is previously undescribed, and may not belong to a known genus.
There’s no shortage of beauty products that claim to reduce wrinkles. Whether any of them work, however, is highly disputed. While the XPL, short for cross-linked polymer layer, won’t magically erase the signs of aging like those suspicious beauty products swear to do, it can literally shave decades off your face by covering your wrinkles up.
Instead of turning back the clock on your skin like most anti-aging products claim to do, this new material is designed to merely mask the signs of aging. You know, just like makeup. Except, it’s made up of a skin-like material that can be applied to any part of your skin, covering up wrinkles, crow’s feet, and any other blemish for up to 24 hours at a time.
Developed by researchers from MIT and Harvard, the XPL is applied in a two-step process. In the first step, polysiloxane components are applied to the skin, after which, a platinum catalyst is added to stiffen it up into a cross-linked film that looks and feels like regular skin. While that sounds technical, both layers are actually applied in the form of creams and ointments, so it should be no more complicated than your regular beauty routine. Aside from its cosmetic functions, the material can be used to protect damaged skin similar to bandages, as well as deliver topical skin medications while ensuring it doesn’t get wiped or washed off.
A startup called Olivo Laboratories has been formed to further refine and develop XPL, with plans to bring it to market in the near future.
We all find it so irritating when we cut an apple to eat and after some time it get browns, by seeing that brown mushy layer we loose our appetite, but think how wonderful will it be if we prevent the apples to get brown it will look fresh and even more delicious though.
What make these apples to get brown so fast? ever wonder…When apples are cut, oxygen is immediately introduced to the injured plant tissue—the brown bruising is a result of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO).
Scientist found a way to prevent these browning in apples. They produced apple by using biotechnology and these GMO (genetically modified organism) Apples re called Arcitic Apple. Arctic Apples were approved by the USDA in 2015, and they decrease the browning process by shutting down the genes responsible for producing PPO. So unless you take three weeks to eat your apple, you’re good to snack.
After having a lots of fats and carbohydrates in our daily we usually feel drowsiness and we end up in taking nap, but ever thought why we feel these drowsiness after having our meals.
Well……….commonly in daily language these after meal drowsiness is known as food coma but in scientific terms, it’s called postprandial somnolence (“postprandial” means after a meal, “somnolence” means drowsiness. Scientists are so fancy). But why does it happen?
To understand the fact about the drowsinnes we need to know what actually happen when we take food. While we are chewing, our stomach produces the hormone gastrin, which triggers the production of the digestive juices that begin to break down the food. That food then moves into the small intestine as the gut releases the hormone enterogastrone, which regulates blood flow, among other things. Meanwhile, the pancreas releases insulin to promote the absorption of glucose from the carbohydrates in the meal. Insulin stimulates the transport of a variety of amino acids into the brain, including the infamous sleepy chemical known as tryptophan.
Chemical tryptophan is rensponsible for the sleepiness after the meal, but you can observe that we dont feel drowsiness after every meal this only happen when we take heavy fatty meal.